Monday, May 21, 2018

W. Bengal Bangladesh- Geologic Controls On Arsenic Distribution In Ground Water

Science writer  Priyanka Pulla has written an excellent article exploring the geologic, socio-economic and technological issues related to the widespread arsenic contamination of groundwater in W. Bengal. Sadly, the government response to this crisis has been slow.

I thought I would elaborate on the geological question -  Why are Arsenic (As) levels much higher in shallower Holocene age aquifers and lower in the deeper Pleistocene age aquifer? The answer encompasses mineralogy, climate change, sea level changes and bacteria.

The ultimate source of As are high Himalayan rocks and Indo-Burman ranges with additional contributions from the Precambrian terrains of Peninsular India and the Siwalik hills.  Minerals like biotite, magnetite, illmenite, olivine, pyroxene, amphiboles contain As. These minerals release As when they undergo weathering in catchment areas and deposits of the alluvial plains. This As is absorbed on secondary minerals like Fe hydroxides like goethite. Such Fe hydroxides are authigenic, i.e. they grow in the shallow buried sediments of the alluvial plains. Under oxidizing conditions, As is immobile, sequestered in Fe hydroxides. However,  conditions may change, and these sediments may get overlain by or be redeposited in environments rich in organic material. Certain bacterial species living on this organic material break down these Fe hydroxides, using the oxygen for their metabolism, and releasing Fe and As into the groundwater. This is known as reductive dissolution of Fe hydroxides and is the principal mechanism for As entering the groundwater in the alluvial plains of Bangladesh and West Bengal.

During the Pleistocene.. 1) the high Himalaya was glaciated. Therefore, important sources of As like the Fe-Mg rich rocks of the Indus ophiolite belt (slices of oceanic crust that existed between India and Asia which have been thrust up during continental collision) and high grade metamorphic rocks such as schists and gneisses were covered in ice and not releasing sediment. Indian cratonic areas, the Siwalik foothills  and the Indo-Burman ranges were being eroded, but overall less As was making its way on to alluvial plains. 2) Since climate was cooler and drier, there was less organic material accumulating in sediment of alluvial plains. Conditions were oxidizing and As remained sequestered in Fe hydroxide minerals. 3) Sea level was much lower then. Almost the entire continental shelf was dry land. Ganga and Brahmaputra met the sea much to the south of present shoreline. Reducing environments like delta front marshes, ponds, estuaries, existed much to the south.

Sedimentary conditions changed by 12-15 thousand years ago. Glacial melt exposed As bearing rocks in high Himalaya. As a result, more As made its way on to alluvial plains. Importantly, sea level rose and flooded the continental shelf. The Pleistocene delta front reducing environments were drowned. Shorelines shifted northwards. The climate was warmer, encouraging vegetation growth. Reducing delta front environments like swamps, coastal marshes and lakes developed on previous alluvial plain sediments.

The map below shows the position of shorelines between 7 thousand and 4 thousand years ago along with the location of wells with high levels of As. This study focuses on Bangladesh but similar conditions existed in West Bengal as well. The sea has receded 2- 3 meters to its present location since 4 thousand years ago.  The delta front and shoreline belt that existed 4-7 thousand years ago is now a densely inhabited region .

 Source: Quaternary shoreline shifting and hydrogeologic influence on the distribution of groundwater arsenic in aquifers of the Bengal Basin- M. Shamsudduha, Ashraf Uddin 2007

Notice clustering of wells with high As along the past shorelines. Here, organic rich delta marshes and swamps developed. Bacterial reduction of Fe hydroxides released As in to groundwater.

As distribution also shows correlation with topography. This map shows high As levels in groundwater coinciding with topographic lows. Such low lying areas accumulate more fine sediment and organic material. Again, this will apply also to W. Bengal.

 Source: Quaternary shoreline shifting and hydrogeologic influence on the distribution of groundwater arsenic in aquifers of the Bengal Basin- M. Shamsudduha, Ashraf Uddin 2007

So, a change in climate and shifts in sedimentary environments in response to changing sea level from Pleistocene to Holocene exerted a strong control on As distribution in the alluvial plains of Bangladesh and W. Bengal. 

Monday, May 14, 2018

Dharwar Craton- Gooty Fort

I had quite a fruitful interaction today on Twitter, after I replied to a tweet about the location of Gooty Fort in Andhra Pradesh.

The fort is built on Archaean gneiss terrain just to the west of the Cuddapah sedimentary basin. I'm embedding the tweet below. It invoked quite a few questions about the terrain and the geology of that region.

And here is the link to the full discussion thread on Twitter - Gooty Fort, Andhra Pradesh

Monday, May 7, 2018

Green Apophyllite

Sigh.. I did a search for Green Apophyllite and most of the top returned links were websites about crystal healing and crystal therapy! :(

I wish Google would introduce a 'credibility metric' in their website ranking algorithm.

Apophyllite is a phyllosilicate (silica and oxygen tetrahedrons are organized in stacked sheets) . It occurs as a secondary mineral in the Deccan basalts, along with zeolites, quartz and calcite. The green color is due to trace amounts of vanadium. I wanted to confirm that. Instead, I got links to websites telling me that Apophyllite "opens the heart chakras and encourages the release of old emotional wounds".

The picture of green apophyllite that I have posted was taken at the Gargoti Mineral Museum near Nasik.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Everest Summit Limestone

Most people I talk to about geology are aware that the Himalaya formed by the buckling and uplift of crust caught up in the India-Asia collision. But, I do see eyebrows raised when I tell them that the summits of some of the highest peaks are made up of marine sedimentary rocks.

The summit of Mount Everest is a fossil bearing limestone of Ordovician age.

What happened to these sediments as they got caught up in Himalayan mountain building? A recent study published in Lithosphere has teased out the deformation and metamorphic history of this limestone.

Polyphase deformation, dynamic metamorphism, and metasomatism of Mount Everest’s summit limestone, east central Himalaya, Nepal/Tibet - Travis L. Corthouts, David R. Lageson, and Colin A. Shaw

The geologists trained Nepalese Sherpa climbers to recover samples from the Everest summit. The location of the samples and the basic geological divisions of the summit is seen in the annotated photograph posted below

 Source: Travis L. Corthouts, David R. Lageson, and Colin A. Shaw 2018

The Everest region is made up of high grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. These are intruded by leucogranite dikes and sills. Towards the upper levels, the grade of metamorphism decreases gradationally to upper greenschist facies. The contact between the two metamorphic grades is a shear zone termed the Lhotse Shear Zone. The greenschist faces rocks are termed the Everest Series.  On top of the Everest Series is the 'Yellow Band'. This is a coarse grained marble and calc-schist. The summit limestones (Qomolangma Formation) rests on this Yellow Band. The boundary between them is a fault zone known as the Qomolangma detachment. This fault zone is a strand of the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) that puts the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS) on top of the Greater Himalaya Sequence throughout the extent of the Himalaya.

A schematic cross section depicting this stratigraphy is shown below.

Source: Travis L. Corthouts, David R. Lageson, and Colin A. Shaw 2018

Researchers used three types of analysis to figure out the geologic history of the limestone.

a) Microfabric analysis of the samples gave the geologists clues to the deformation and stress regime experienced by the summit limestone. The limestones have been converted into a mylonite. This means that increased temperatures and pressures from faulting resulted in a new textural arrangement in which the original calcite grains of the limestone were recrystallized and deformed. New calcite crystals grew flattened and stretched along one direction, resulting in a foliated (layered) streaky appearance to the rock. This texture forms during ductile deformation in a compressive stress regime. Geologists found that near the vicinity of the Qomolangma fault, a set of dilational fractures indicating extensional forces cut across these ductile deformation textures. This indicates that the summit limestone was subjected to tensile forces and normal faulting at a later stage.

b) Titanium content of quartz and biotite from samples close to the South Summit (EV6) indicated the temperature of metamorphism. This is so because the amount of Ti incorporated in to growing crystals of quartz and biotite increases with increase in temperature of crystallization. Results indicated that the limestones at the base of the Qomolangma Formation experienced temperatures as high as 500 deg C. 

c) The age of metamorphism was estimated by dating muscovite crystals using Ar40/Ar39 technique. Muscovite crystals grew in response to the increased temperature and pressure the limestone was subjected to during Himalayan orogeny. Dates show that there were two phases of mineral growth. The first at 28 million years ago, and a younger phase at about 18 million years ago, indicating separate events of movement and heating along the Qomolangma fault zone.

The leucogranite sills and dikes, which intrude the underlying Greater Himalaya Sequence, also merit a mention. They formed by the partial melting of the crust during Himalaya orogeny.  As this magma intruded and solidified inside the Greater Himalaya Sequence, they expelled fluids with volatile elements which permeated into the overlying limestone. This caused metasomatism and crystallization of secondary minerals in the limestone. Boron, potassium, titanium and H2O were introduced into the limestone and were incorporated into minerals like muscovite, biotite and quartz. This activity is dated to about 28 million years ago based on the age of secondary muscovite in the lower parts of the summit limestone.

The sequence of geologic events is summarized in the graphic below:

Source: Travis L. Corthouts, David R. Lageson, and Colin A. Shaw 2018

And an excerpt of the conclusions from the paper-

The different fabrics and metamorphic temperatures observed between the upper and lower parts of the Qomolangma Formation are the result of distinct events that influenced the summit limestone at different times throughout Himalayan orogenesis. Fabrics seen in summit samples are the result of Eohimalayan deformation and low-grade metamorphism associated with initial thrust faulting, folding, and crustal thickening of the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence in the Eocene. In contrast, the fabrics and elevated temperatures preserved in South Summit samples are the result of events that occurred in the late Oligocene and early Miocene, including metasomatism associated with Neohimalayan metamorphism and normal faulting on the South Tibetan detachment. This means that several significant tectonic events in Himalayan orogenesis are preserved in the Qomolangma Formation, a succession of deformed Ordovician limestone that now comprises the top of Mount Everest.

Open Access.

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Dating Rock Art

I love it when science is explained with a well thought out and cleanly drawn illustration.

A commentary in Nature News and Views by David G. Pearce and Adelphine Bonneau presents this diagram on dating rock art.

Two recent studies on dating cave paintings from Spain are discussed.

Who were the artists?

The oldest minimum age for the paintings is 66 ka (thousand  years) leading to speculation that they might have been drawn by Neanderthals. The earliest presence of modern humans in Spain is from  40 ka. This would imply independent evolution of symbolic behavior in Neanderthals.  However, the same painting throws up a range of minimum dates from ~ 60 ka to ~ 3 ka making an exclusive link  to Neanderthals problematic.